Farm Managment

 
The Canadian swine industry is an important part of Canadian agriculture. The success of the Canadian industry owes much to advances made in Canadian genetic improvements and high health standards in the breeding sector. The development of the superior genetic quality of Canada’s swine industry, through performance testing and genetic improvement programs, is largely responsible for the progress made over the years.

Genetic improvement continues to be a leading factor for profitable pig production. Canadian swine genetics are well suited to today’s pork quality needs. Canadian pigs are lean, fast growing, have a low feed conversion, a high lean carcass yield and superior eating qualities.

Commercial hog production in India is relatively small, undeveloped and social and economic considerations make it a challenge to develop and efficient swine industry structure. Apart from the apparent challenges, the swine industry in India is intended to grow in all States to meet the needs of producers and for consumers for high quality pork products in niche markets.

Under the Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada – India’s Ministry of Agriculture Memorandum of Understanding, Canada and India agreed to jointly develop a Swine Genetic Improvement Scheme based on Canada’s breeding program. Establishing animal health protocol for live swine and pork and providing education, training and extension for hog farm management are key components in developing the swine industry in India.

The purpose of the project is to establish and operate a 100-sow farrow-finish Purebred Nucleus or Multiplier operation, with project activities being overseen by a Board of Directors. The project would require live pigs, frozen semen, computer record-keeping programs and equipment, for the development of a piggery unit in India, to be supplied from Canadian partners. Computer record keeping based on Canadian Centre for Swine Improvement Programs will include detailed measurements of breeding pigs for herd replacement selections. The genetic evaluation program will be utilized to improve the genetic value of the herd as per India’s needs.

Management
 
The proposed management structure planned for the breeding farm involves a General Manager working with a joint Canada-India Board of Directors. The Board of Directors could be structured with representatives from government, academia, research and industry with the intent to build a strong swine industry in India. The Board of Directors would provide advice, recommendations and give direction to ensure that progress is made on the important aspects of the project. The Board of Directors primary focus would be on genetic improvement, swine production and management of the pig production unit. The Board of Directors would also be responsible to approve the detailed project plans in order to ensure the project is launched and executed in an effective and efficient manner.

Smaller teams will be required to manage and oversee the various activities involved in the project. The General Manager along with an Indian project manager will be responsible to ensure proper communication as well as to provide project support. These smaller project teams will work directly with all existing partner organizations involved in the Swine Genetic Improvement Scheme in India. Professionals already contributing to the industry will be included as part of the implementation and execution of the project. Commitment and involvement of all interested parties in genetic improvement is necessary to ensure the development of a strong swine industry in India. Further definitions of responsibilities will be discussed as meetings of potential partners take place.

Labor Requirements
 
Management of a modern pig production facility requires Managers with excellent business, technical and people skills. Qualified Managers and herdsmen are in generally short supply in India but there are herds-persons for the breeding program that can be considered by paying an appropriate salary.

Training is available in India through various agencies and existing breeding barns. The unit requires a barn Manager with experience in pig production and in staff management. In addition, the breeding/farrowing/nursery operation will require three staff working in the barns.

It is envisioned that most of the direct and indirect jobs related to the primary piggery production unit will be sources closed to the production site. Through this project, training, extension and knowledge transfer will begin at all levels within the Indian swine industry. Professionals, staff and farmers will begin to learn new tools and techniques related to genetic improvement, herd management, and nutrition.

Environmental Management
 
The Project will follow the Farm Practices Guidelines. All environmental regulations in the construction of storage lagoons and the responsible disposal of the manure on improved lands will be ensured.

Feed Supply
 
Feed represents an important operating cost in any commercial swine project. Feed will be supplied from a commercial feed mill as well as including waste products into the feed mix. Consistency of feed quality will be assured and planned production goals making optimum use of available feeds and striking balance in the swine herd will be monitored. Importation of protein supplements and vitamin/mineral premixes can be procured from Canadian/Indian sources.

Adequate feed tonnage manufacture is necessary as is the presentation of feed to the sows and growing pigs. Ad lib feeding of nursery piglets and grower pigs should be considered a benefit to growth rate and feed efficiency. Good equipment design from Canadian sources will ensures low feed wastage by pigs eating at the trough.

Pigs in the same age groups are progressively fed rations of lower cost as they become older. They can be fed seven or eight different rations throughout their lifetime. Pigs are fed more precisely to their nutrient requirements. Split sex feeding can also be applied to ensure that rations to be prepared meet the requirements of the animals.

Benefits:
  • lower feed costs
  • prevent over- or under-feeding
  • improved feed conversions
  • improved growth rates